Spice Encyclopedia



Fennel is a tall perennial herb native to the Mediterranean region, now widely cultivated as an annual or perennial in Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Greece, Turkey, Italy, France, Germany, Egypt, India, Pakistan and China. Fennel is one of Germany’s more important medicinal plant crops. The material of commerce comes mainly from Bulgaria, Hungary, Romania, Egypt, and China.

Fennel seeds are popular in both sweet and savory dishes. Fennel seeds are a component of Chinese five-spice. The spice is said to cure everything from hiccups and coughs to earaches, toothaches, and asthma. Fragrant fennel oil is used both to flavor sweets and perfume soaps.

Fennel is a licorice flavored, feathery, aromatic herb. It grows to be several feet tall with umbels of small, yellow flowers that look very similar to a dill plant. This digestive herb relieves heartburn, gas, colic, and an upset stomach. The seeds can be chewed to sweeten breath and help a toothache, and a gargle will relieve a sore throat.

Available Varieties In Pakistan

Pictorial Representation
Cultivation Areas Rajasthan, Gujrat, Uttar pradesh
Distinctive Characteristics Mild sweet mint flavorLong seeds with thinner in the middle, and slightly curvedThin elongated seeds with dark green colorSweeter taste
Possible Adulteration Adulteration with cheap quality and infested materials
Pictorial Representation
Cultivation Areas Larkana, Dadu, Kunri, Khaipro, Sakkar, Hyderabad
Distinctive Characteristics Sharp sweet mint flavorLong seeds with thicker in the middleLarge seeds with bright green – yellow colorSweet pungent taste


Chemical Composition

Fennel seed contains essential oils (4%), of which 50.0% is trans-anethole, 9.2% (+)-fenchone, 2% estragole (methyl chavicol), plus a- and b-pinene, a-phellandrene, limonene, camphene, and others; fixed oil (17?0%), of which 60?5% is petroselinic acid; the flavonoids kaempferol, quercetin, isoquercitrin, and rutin; protein (16?0%); minerals (relatively high in calcium and potassium); sugars; and vitamins.

Botanical Name: Foeniculum Vulgare
Commercial Name: Saunf
Part of Plant: Seeds
Method of Production: Harvest Product
Origins: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, Greece, Turkey, Italy, France, Germany, Egypt, India,Pakistan, China

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